The first major outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Pakistan occurred in 2003 among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Larkana. At that time, a survey of PWID revealed that 17 out of 175 (9.7%) were confirmed HIV positive, compared to historic dat
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a potentially treatable chronic liver disease (CLD) of unknown cause, characterized by ongoing hepatocellular necroinflammation which may progress to cirrhosis if untreated. AIH is a unique clinical entity, which cannot be explaine
The Journal of Pakistan Medical Association (JPMA) has repeatedly drawn attention to the need for robust medical research in Pakistan and beyond.1 Editors and reviewers contribute to the growth of research by suggesting tips for research
Objective:To determine frequency and prognostic factors of peripartum cardiomyopathy.
Methods: The prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2012 to September 2013 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Cases were collected in the first year, and were then followed up for six mo
Objective: To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.
Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overwei
Objective: To evaluate sun exposure behaviours, sun protection practices, general knowledge, attitudes and awareness of University students about the benefits of sun exposure and harmful effects of too much or avoidance of sun exposure.
Methods: This cross-sectional survey st
Objective: To determine the factors that affect sleep status of surgical and medical patients during hospitalisation.
Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University\'s Farabi Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey, from July to Octobe
Objective: To investigate the effects of repeated doses of apomorphine in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.
Methods: The experimental case-control study was conducted in March 2011 at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, and comprised albino
Objective: To investigate physicians\' smoking cessation practice, consultation for smoking intervention for hospitalised patients and its determinants.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Duzce University Hospital, Duzce, Turkey, from January to April 2013,
Objective: To investigate the frequency of cytochrome P2D6*10 in breast cancer patients.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute, Islamabad, and the Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comp
Objective: To investigate the effect of ezetimibe on platelet functions as a drug which increases mevalonate levels.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised record of normolipidaemic and hyperlipidaemic patients taken from the outpat
Objective: An association between serum levels of vitamin D and glycaemic control in type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients has been reported in some of the studies carried out in the West. However, there are no reports on this relationship in Pakistani diabetic patients. The aim of this s
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suitable applicators for intracavitary brachytherapy to treat cervical cancer.
Methods: This study was conducted at the Bahawalpur Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, in February 2014. Dose distributions for
Objective: To evaluate the influence of reproductive health training given in Turkish Armed Forces on recruits\' knowledge.
Methods: This interventional study was conducted at the Basic Military Training Centre, Kutahya, Turkey, from September to October 2009, and comprised
Objective: To identify the perceptions of rural women about modern contraceptive methods and to ascertain the psycho-social and economic attitude of women about family planning methods.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha,
Objective:To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with oc
Objective: To establish a polymerase chain reaction method based on 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene for the detection of plasmodium deoxyribonucleic acid in patients suffering from malaria symptoms.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to
Objective: Vanadyl sulphate, an inorganic tetravalent salt of transition metal vanadium is conventionally used to treat diabetes and by athletes as body-building supplement. Vanadyl sulphate is a constituent of many supplements and herbal preparations available over the counter in many par
Objective: To determine the incidence of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation to evaluate antenatal resolution/ progression and post-natal outcome.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data of all women found
Objective: To evaluate the results of posterior sub-tenon triamcinolone acetonide in patients of refractory macular oedema suffering with retinal vascular disorders.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Layton Rahmatulla Benevolent Trust, Lahore, Pakistan,
Objective: To analyse referral pattern of high-risk obstetric cases from secondary to tertiary care hospitals and to assess their maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised all re
Objective: To evaluate the safety, cosmetic and functional outcome of craniofacial reconstruction surgery for primary craniosynostosis and clefts.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from June 2011 to D
Objective: To assess the association between the learning environment and academic performance at medical colleges.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in four medical colleges in 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Online questionnaire was sent to final year medical s
Objective: To determine knowledge and practices of nurses on cervical cancer, human papillomavirus and its vaccine.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Cankiri Karatekin University, Cankiri, Turkey, from December 2015 to January 2016, and included nurses. . A sur
Objective: To assess the reliability of different red blood cell indices-based formulae in the indexes formula in differential diagnosis of beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anaemia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and October 2015 i
Objective: To analyse the health system performance in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan\'s southern Punjab region.
Methods: The cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted in October 2014 in three tehsils of district Multan in the Punjab provinc
This study harnessed the power of geographic information system (GIS) to summarise and visualise ten-page tabular data in two maps. The data comprised of the percentage of 5-years and older males and females who fell sick or were injured during the two weeks prior to the survey, and on their heal
ResearchGate has been regarded as one of the most attractive academic social networking site for scientific community. It has been trying to improve user-centered interfaces to gain more attractiveness to scientists around the world. Display of journal related scietometric measures (such as impac
Lemierre\'s syndrome refers to septic thrombosis of deep veins of the neck, is a rare and often life threatening complication following upper respiratory tract infections. We present here a case of Lemierre\'s syndrome in a previously healthy 30 years old female who had a febrile illness for
Pulmonary embolism can present in various ways, though seizure activity has been rarely reported. We report a 38 years old male who had met a road traffic accident, underwent surgery, presented a month later with seizures, chest pain, shortness of breath and low blood pressure. Massive pulmonary
Chordoma is a rare, indolent but locally invasive, osteolytic, slow growing, low grade, primary bone malignancy, derived from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. It is a midline tumour and it predominantly emerges from the axial skeleton. The most commonly observed location of a chordoma is
Morphologic anomalies of liver, as opposed to many other visceral organs, are very rare. Hypoplasia or agenesis of left lobe of the liver is defined as the absence of liver tissue on the left side of liver without previous disease or surgery. It is usually an incidental finding revealed by imagin
Bullet embolization cases are rare and even rarer are its retrograde migration in the veins. We report the case of a 14 year old male with a gunshot wound to the left side of his chest. CT scan revealed bilateral haemothorax and foreign body in the right common iliac vein. The patient was immedia
Madam, if language is considered a tool of communication; it would be significant to mention the effectiveness of script training as an intervention therapy for patients who have lost their language due to aphasia.
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder of communication resulting from th
Madam, we have read an interesting review article published by Syed IAA, Naqvi SHA1 entitled as “Proton pump inhibitors use; beware of side-effects”. Although, this is an importantly written article highlighting the safety issues of one of the most frequently us
Sleep is a physiological state that helps in the smooth functioning of many organ systems in the body by maintaining the circadian rhythms. Human beings spend about one third of their life in sleep. Sleep hygiene is a practice of good quality and quantity of sleep, which ensures day time alertnes
This brief article describes risk calculators that are based on populations of Pakistani ethnicity, and can be used for risk stratification in Pakistani and other South Asian clinics. Covering the QRISK, QKidney, QThrombosis, QFracture and QCancer risk calculators, it uses examples to explain how
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health problem of all age groups, both gender, involves rural and urban areas and developing and developed countries globally. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan.
Systematic bibliographic search of scien
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