Epidemiology according to the Greek origin of its terms \'epi\', \'demos\' and \'logos\' in its literal interpretation refers to the \'study upon people\'.1 The World Health Organization (WHO) defines epidemiology as "the study o
Introduction to ILD
The Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a heterogeneous group of pulmonary disorders, classified together because of similar clinical, radiological and pathological features. 1 These are often described as diffuse parenchymal lung disease
Objective: Nowadays it is known that dietary imbalances are associated with non-communicable diseases which would be a major cause of worldwide deaths in 2020. This study was conducted to assess the dietary pattern of students who live in a dormitory in Kerman, Iran, based on Healthy Eatin
Objective: To compare anti-mullerian hormone among fertile and infertile groups of women in their reproductive age.
Methods: This case-control study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences in collaboration with Civil Hospital, Karachi, from October 2011
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of islet cells autoantibodies among non-diabetic relatives of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.
Methods: The study was conducted at the College of Medicinal Technology, Basra, Iraq, from December 2010 to December 2012, and comprised bo
Objective: To determine the frequency of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing E.coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, better phenotypic techniques for MBL detection and choices of treatment available for such cases.
Methods: This study was conducted in The Children\'s Hospital,
Objective: To assess anaemia and oxidative stress in rats that were injected lead and to evaluate the possible effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on these parameters.
Methods: This randomised control trial study was conducted at the Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Pak
Objective: To determine the frequency of hyponatraemia and hypokalaemia in malnourished children with acute diarrhoea.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from September 2013 to March 2014, and comprised acute di
Objective: To determine morbidity after colostomy reversal at a tertiary care hospital.
Method: The retrospective case series was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of patients aged 15 years or more who underwent colostomy reversal f
Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum anti-Mullerian hormone and follicular dynamics in mice.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted in November, 2014 at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, and comprised laboratory-bred albino mice. They we
Objective: To assess tumour control, hearing preservation status, and complication ratio after fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy by using CyberKnife device in patients with vestibular schwannomas.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Izmir Atat
Objective: To compare the academic performance of day scholar and boarder students in Pharmacology examinations.
Methods: This comparative study was conducted at Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from June to September, 2015. It comprised third-year medical students
Objective: To compare the efficacy of amiodarone and digoxin for patients who underwent valve-related cardiac surgery and had atrial fibrillation in the first 72 hours post-operatively.
Methods: The observational/descriptive study was conducted at the Punjab Institute of Card
Objective: The study was done to identify metabolic factors which were associated with an increased risk of dengue haemorrhagic fever in clinically diagnosed patients of dengue viral infection.
Methods: 563 patients with dengue viral infection that presented to 3 tertiary car
Objective: To determine the effects of topical finasteride 0.5% on the results of diode laser therapy in the treatment of hirsutism.
Methods: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial study was conducted at a private clinic in Babol, Iran, between June 2012 and Ju
Objective: To evaluate nurses\' opinions on the violation and protection of their rights at public hospitals.
Methods: The descriptive study was conducted between May and November 2013 at 11 hospitals affiliated with the Association of Public Hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey.
Objective: To study the ratio of false negativity in sputum samples in diagnostic smears received for acid fast bacilli smear microscopy.
Methods: The retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at the Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases, Karachi, and comprised specimens f
Objective: To assess the knowledge about tuberculosis and health-seeking behaviour of people living in rural areas of Sindh.
Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted by the Pakistan Red Crescent Society in Dadu and Badin districts of Sindh, Pakistan, from January to
Objective: To compare the safety and efficacy of single injection of sub-tenon triamcinolone and topical dexamethasone in reducing post-operative inflammation after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.
Methods: The randomised controlled study was conducted a
Background: Hard water is thought to play a key role in weakening of hair (not Hair Loss) and breakage especially when travelling is involved. In our community, commonly men do the travelling and complain more about hair problem which is why only young male individuals were included in thi
Objective: To see if single nucleotide polymorphisms of pulmonary innate immune molecule surfactant protein D were associated with poor lung function in smokers.
Methods: The study was conducted at Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from April 2008 to August 2010, and c
Objective: To evaluate the results of the minimally invasive internal fixation method using reverse Less Invasive Stabilisation System locking plate in unstable proximal femur extracapsular fractures.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Department of Ortho
The subject of nutrition in intensive care is broad.Thenutrition support therapy plays a crucial role in the management of critically ill patients. This review was carried out to address the existing controversies and to recognise the current practice guidelines for the management of nutrition in
Nutrition transition is a shift in eating and disease patterns towards diet-nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs). This shift in many developing countries has been accompanied with changes in behaviours, lifestyles, diets, physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol consumption. In a
The study highlights the spectrum of abdominal TB in emergency surgery and its outcome. A proforma based prospective cross sectional study was conducted from March 2008 - March 2014, at the Department of General Surgery, Dow University of Health Sciences & Civil Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. To
Iatrogenic Tracheo Esophageal Fistula (TEF) in adults is a rare complication occurring secondary to trauma and prolonged intubation. There is very scarce data regarding its airway management and that too is from the paediatric age group. We describe the case of a young male undergoing TEF repair.
Surviving sepsis guideline supports the placement of central venous cannulation (CVC) to target the deranged physiology. The placement of CVC is still challenging, which requires detailed knowledge of venous anatomy and orientation of congenital venous anomalies. Double or persistent left superio
Spinal cord haemangioblastomas are rare central nervous systems tumours, and haemorrhage.It is an uncommon occurance.
We report a 28-year-old pregnant patient who presented with paraplegia due to acute haemorrhage of a spinal haemangioblastoma. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive s
Traumatic ear amputations are relatively rare. Whenever possible, ear re-implantation should be attempted; however the choice of the surgical procedure must be judicious. In the current report, a case of complete non-microsurgical salvage of a partially amputated ear treated by the pocket techniq
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a rarely occurring neurodegenerative metabolic disorder with an incidence of 1-9 individuals out of 1,000,000. We present a similar case in an eighteen month old child which was extremely challenging to diagnose. Clinical symptoms suggested motor regression and dev
Concussions are mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) which cause short-lived neurological impairments that can develop immediately or over several hours and can produce functional cognitive, emotional and autonomic symptoms rather than a structural injury. They can cause significant impact on edu
We report three paediatric cases of Kawasaki disease (KD). Erythema multiforme (EM) was the presenting cutaneous feature in two patients, with young age (43 days old), macular rash and meningitis in the third patient. Diagnosis of KD was difficult due either to initial misdiagnosis of drug erupti
This review discusses recent advances in lipid management, focusing on a new class of drugs known as pcsk9i (proprotein convertase subtilisin/ kexin 9 inhibitors. It describes the basic and clinical pharmacology of these drugs.
Keywords: Aliorcumab, Bocicizumab, Evolcumab, LDL chole
Diabetes and tuberculosis coexist together, and influence each other\'s natural history and treatment outcomes significantly. This assumes clinical as well as public health significance. This article describes these associations, and discusses action that can be taken at the primary care level
Objective: To analyse students\' perception regarding the use of portfolio-workbook in ethics course.
Methods: This mixed method study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2014, and comprised fourth-year medical students. The "portfo
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