Red Cross is a globally respected non-governmental organisation (NGO). It has stood the test of time in peace as in wars. It may be called the Red crescent i
Objective: To assess the severity of acute gastroenteritis in paediatric population.
Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 93 randomly selected o
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and transmission risks of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections among internally displaced persons.
Methods: This study was conducted in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, from August 2014 to April 2015, and com
Objective: To determine the presentation and frequency of various intracranial neoplasms and assess outcomes for patients who underwent surgery without neuronavigation.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comp
Objective: To highlight the role of habitat evaluation in reducing the potential transmission risk of malaria.
Methods: This study was conducted from January to June, 2015, in District Bannu in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, where 64 larval habitats were characterised in 10 vi
Objective: To determine the frequency and patterns of normal anatomical variation of Circle of Willis on magnetic resonance angiogram in adults without cerebrovascular disease.
Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Radiology Department of Dow Un
Objective: To determine the frequency distribution of dengue fever during the 2014 outbreak in a district in northern Pakistan.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between June and November, 2014, at Saidu Sharif Teaching Hospital, Swat, Pakistan, where patients
Objective: To find an association between self-reported academic performance with different socio-demographic factors, health behaviours and mental health amongst university students.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahria University, Karachi, from Januar
Objective: To develop and validate the Urdu version of the International Prostate Symptoms Score.
Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Indus Hospital, Karachi, from January to April 2014, and comprised interviews of subjects at baseline and at 2 weeks for assessing
Objective: To determine the association between environmental tobacco smoke and dental caries.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and urban areas of Karachi, from February to August 2014, and comprised children aged 5-14 years. A pre-coded questio
Objective: To determine the life quality and self-care ability of mothers in the post-partum period.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at a family health centre based in Kars Province of Turkey from May to September 2015, and comprised mothers who were in the pos
Objective: To assess educational environment at a nursing school.
Methods: The cross-sectional survey was carried out from May to October 2016 at Aga Khan University School of Nursing and Midwifery, Karachi, using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure tool. The sco
Objective: To investigate TP53 gene codon 72 polymorphism in women with endometriosis and compare it with healthy samples.
Methods: This case-control study was carried out at Jinnah Hospital, Services Hospital and Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from 2014 to 20
Objective: To determine the frequency of obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients suffering from depression.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching, Sialkot, Pakistan, from February 2014 to March 2017, and comprised patients s
Objective: To demonstrate a supportive treatment option based on microorganism\'s growth characteristics.
Methods: This study was conducted at Ordu University, Faculty of Dentistry, Turkey, between January and April, 2017, comprising patients whose periodontal parameters an
Objective: To explore the effects of simulation training on paediatric residents\' confidence and skills in managing advanced skills in critical care.
Methods: The study was conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March to June 2016, and comprised junio
Objective: To assess the awareness of childhood autism among physicians undergoing residency training in various disciplines.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a research and training hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, in February 2013 and comprised physicians
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arbovirus belongs to the family Togaviridae and was discovered in Tanzania in year 953-54. In November 2016, an outbreak occurred in Karachi and approximately 30,000 individuals were infected with CHIKV. More than 4,000 cases were confirmed by qualitative reverse tra
Robotic surgery has been the forte of minimally invasive stereo-tactic procedures for some decades now. Ongoing advancements and evolutionary developments require substantial evidence to build the consensus about its efficacy in the field of neurosurgery. Main obstacle in obtaining successful res
Current practices in radiation therapy required high doses of radiation to be delivered with increased accuracy. Treatment planning task is exercised till an optimum dose distribution is achieved. The present reported work was performed to compare the various aspects of the cobalt-60 radiation be
Optic nerve sheath diameter measurement (ONSD) has been associated with identifying the prognosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. The study was planned to evaluate the prognostic value of ONSD measured on the initial brain computed tomography (CT) scan performed on patients with blunt T
There is a growing perception in Pakistan that comparatively more women are gaining admissions and graduating from medical colleges; however these graduates are not practicing medicine. This pilot study provides perspectives on the influences on medical career choice and plans regarding future me
Self-esteem among eunuchs is highly influenced by a variety of factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differences in self-esteem of eunuchs on the basis of education, income, age and marital status. The study was conducted at the University of Haripur, Pakistan, from Decembe
Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is one of the emerging treatment options for supraspinatus tendinopathy. Focus is on the effectiveness of LLLT in patients with partial tear of supraspinatus tendon. Two patients had three assessments; at baseline, six weeks and three months after the treatment. Ten
Krukenberg tumour is an uncommon metastatic tumour of ovary. It accounts for 1-2% of ovarian malignancies. Pylorus of stomach is the most common site of primary tumour. We are presenting two case reports of patients who had Krukenberg ovarian masses. Case I; an appendiceal adenocarcinoma (AACa) w
Nodular hidradenoma is a benign rare skin tumour arising from the eccrine type of sweat glands. It is usually found on the trunk, extremities and head, however can occur anywhere in the body. It is a slow growing tumour, usually painless. The patient presents with a palpable lump of variable size
Thyroid dysgenesis, the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism, includes hypoplasia, ectopia, and agenesis. Agenesis may present as hemiagenesis, bilobar agenesis, or isthmic agenesis. A small ectopic thyroid tissue may sometimes be detected on the embryonal migration pathway of suspected
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult onset, progressive, idiopathic neurodegenerative disease that clinically manifest as MSA-C with cerebellar signs predominant, MSA-P with Parkinsonian features predominant and MSA-A with autonomic signs and symptoms. MRI has an important role in its diagno
We investigated the impact of microtubule destabilization and dechanneling therapy on a suppression of refractory electrical storm (ES) in a 63-year-old male patient with ischaemic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), who had a history of previous coronary artery
Fifty five year old, previously healthy gentleman presented to the physical therapy, outpatient department (OPD) with complaint of severe low back pain. He sustained injury to his back after pulling a table and was seen 3 hours after the onset. He had a forward stooped posture and could hardly wa
A 72-year-old man presented to the outpatient clinic with symptoms of chest pain and dyspnoea on exertion (NYHA III) for past two months. Physical examination was unremarkable with normal first and second heart sounds. Unfortunately, the valsalva maneuver was not performed as no murmur was apprec
Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a scarce and generally lethal congenital malformation. Patients with complete IAA rarely reach adulthood without surgical intervention. In this report, we describe the case of a 50-year-old man who was found to have IAA and mixed aortic valve disease after examina
Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is a poorly understood pathologic process often seen with neoplastic process either due to it or its treatment. The pathology is ischaemic bone necrosis and joint collapse or it may be asymptomatic and missed easily. We have described three young patie
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) has emerged as a common and heterogeneous condition across the globe. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical features of T1DM has led to in-depth study of the condition. This review describes the classification of T1DM, as proposed by leading internation
This communication shares a simple structured 12 item Hypoglycaemia Awareness Questionnare (HAQ) which helps in screening and identification of hypoglycaemia. This tool helps complement the role of self-management of blood glucose in diabetes care. The choice of questions is such that they cover
Treatment for glioblastoma multiforme comprises of surgical resection of the tumour followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Temozolomide is the routinely used radiosensitizer during radiotherapy and chemotherapy cycles and has shown good results. An alternative to temozolomide is gemcitabine,
Madam, the university faculty members are the main elements of education and research. The faculty member is not just an information provider or a teacher but they have many other roles including facilitation, assessment, curriculum and course planning and resource development. In addition to the
Madam, stethoscope remains an important vector for the spread of health-care associated infections (HAI). It has also been observed that an effective infection control protocols in the clinical settings depend on the comprehensive education from medical student up to the senior clinicians. The st
Madam, due to increasing multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens, clinicians are facing limitations in choice of antibiotics to treat infections. Global reports project mortality rates due to MDR infections to exceed those from cancer until 2050.1,2 Use of lytic bacte
Madam, we read with interest the findings of Khan et al. that were recently published in your prestigious journal.1 The authors reported that approximately 21% of hospitalized patients develop acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which is associ
Thanks for raising the questions regarding the study.The severity/stages of AKI as per AKIN classification were not mentioned. We were interested in the frequency of AKI as mentioned in the title. The severity of AKI needs another whole study to stratify the injury according to the severity and t
Objective: To investigate why and what mental images patients who suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus use to describe their experiences of the disease based on their professional culture.
Methods: This qualitative study was conducted at the Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey,
Lutembacher syndrome is characterized by a congenital ostium secundum atrial septal defect and an acquired mitral valve stenosis. We present a similar case in a 31-year old male who came in with orthopnoea, central cyanosis and pedal oedema. Examination revealed cardiac murmurs in tricuspid and apic
Madam, cardiac troponin is the diagnostic mainstay for cardiomyocyte damage.1 The newly emerging high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) assay has improved sensitivity and precision in detecting myocardial injury and infarct than the standard troponin T assays.
Madam, healthcare workers (HCW) are at an increased risk of needle-stick injuries due to occupational exposure. A significant fraction of infection with hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst HCWs is due to percutaneous injuries, which is around 37%,
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