Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:66, No:5 May, 2016
Editorial >>

Polio: the fight of the public against a disease it does not understand with a vaccine it does not trust

Hafsa Yasin.

Polio is on the verge of eradication. The global polio campaign has been declaring this for the past 5 of its total 27 years. The calls for the final blow became stronger and more enthusiastic in 2011, when India successfully stopped Polio transmission in one of the most technically challenging a

Original Articles >>

Two-year survival of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and the factors affecting survival

Selvi Asker, Bulent Ozbay, Selami Ekin, Hanifi Yildiz, Bunyamin Sertogullarindan.

Objective: To investigate two-year survival rates and the factors affecting survival in patients of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring invasive mechanical ventilation.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Yuzuncuy?l University, Van, Turkey, an

Frequency and distribution of angiographically occluded coronary artery and in-hospital outcome of patients with Non ST elevation myocardial infarction

Saba Aijaz, Bashir Hanif.

Objective: To calculate the frequency and distribution of occluded coronary artery in patients with recent non-ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing coronary angiography, and to compare major adverse cardiovascular events during hospitalisation with patients suffering from non-occl

Impact of delay in admission on the outcome of critically ill patients presenting to the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital from low income country

Badar Afzal Khan, Nishi Shakeel, Emad uddin Siddiqui, Ghazala Kazi, Irum Qamar Khan, Munawer Khursheed, Asher Feroze, Kiran Ejaz, Sumaiya Tauseeq Khan, Hatem Adel.

Objective: To assess the impact of admission delay on the outcome of critical patients.
Methods: The retrospective chart review was done at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised adult patients visiting the Emergency Department during 2010. Outcome measures asse

Iranian road traffic injury project: assessment of road traffic injuries in Iran in 2012

Ali Khorshidi, Elaheh Ainy, Hamid Soori, Mohammad Mahdi Sabbagh.

Objective: To assess the status of road traffic injuries in Iran.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in Iran and comprised all reported traffic accidents from March 2011 to March 2012 that were recorded in the national traffic accident database. The information co

Lactacyd FH as an adjuvant therapy for vulvovaginal infections in Pakistani women: FRESH study, a satisfaction survey

Amna Zia Eusaph, Robina Nighat, Aasma Arshad.

Objective: To demonstrate that adjuvant therapy with lactic acid+lactoserum solution provides satisfactory symptomatic relief and is safe in patients with vulvo-vaginal infections.
Method: The open-label survey was conducted at 96 private consultation clinics in 14 cities ac

A comparison of two techniques of preparing bone marrow aspirate slides

Aamer Aleem, Khalid Alsaleh, Mansour Aljabry, Shahid Aziz, Zafar Iqbal, Abdulkareem Almomen.

Objective: To compare direct smear technique with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) preserved smear technique in terms of preparing bone marrow aspirate slides.
Methods: This prospective study was carried out between September 2009 and July 2012 at the Haematology/Oncolo

Burnout and quality of life in nurses of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan

Shahana Naz, Ali Madeeh Hashmi, Aftab Asif.

Objectives: To determine the relationship of burnout and quality of life among nurses of different departments at a tertiary care hospital.
Method: The observational, cross-sectional study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from November 2013 to May2014, and comprised nu

Sub-threshold frequency doubled Nd. YAG modified mild maculr grid laser for diffuse diabetic maculopathy

Jamshed Ahmed, Rommana Fasih.

Objective: To determine the anatomical and functional improvement in eyes with diffuse macular oedema after modified mild macular grid laser.
Methods: The prospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology Unit II, Civil Hospital Karachi, and the Department of

Learning environment, approaches to learning and learning preferences: medical students versus general education students

Raza Ullah.

Objectives: The main objective of the study was to see whether medical students use more desirable approaches to studying than general education students.
Methods: Survey method was used to collect data from both the medical students and the general education students. The su

Analysis of association between type of amblyopia and gender at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi

Abdul Hameed Siddiqui, Syed Akhtar Raza, Arifa Ghazipura, Muhammad Azhar Hussain, Sarwat Iqbal, Kamran Ahsan, Adnan Nadeem.

Objective: To analyse the frequency of different types of amblyopia and its association with gender.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2014 to October 2014 at the Department of Ophthalmology of a tertiary care hospital inKarachi. The patients were cl

Fibroblast growth factor 2 improves cognitive function in neonatal rats with hypoxic ischaemic brain injury

Yalcin Celik, Bora Resitoglu, Mustafa Komur, Ayse Polat, Semra Erdogan, Alakaya, Huseyin Beydagi.

Objective: To determine the effect of fibroblast growth factor 2 on cognitive function in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury.
Methods: The randomised controlled study was conducted from January to June 2011 at Mersin University, School of Medicine, Experimental

Characteristics of the patients undergoing surgical treatment for pneumothorax: A descriptive study

Muharrem Cakmak, Melih Yuksel, Mehmet Nail Kandemir.

Objective: To identify the characteristic features of pneumothorax patients treated surgically.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital Thoracic Surgery Clinic, Diyarbakir, Turkey and comprised records of pneumothorax pa

Comparison of primary versus recurrent pterygium after intralesional 5-Fluorouracil

Sidra Malik, Muhammad Saim Khan, Imran Basit.

Objective: To compare the mean change in corneal astigmatism and clinical appearance after intralesional injection of 5-Fluorouracil in primary and recurrent pterygia.
Methods: The quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpin

Burden of rheumatological disorders in a tertiary care hospital

Tasnim Ahsan, Danish Khowaja, Rukhshanda Jabeen, Uzma Erum, Hassan Ali, Muhammad Umar Farooq, Urooj Lal Rehman.

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of different rheumatological disorders in patients visiting a tertiary care centre.
Methods: The retrospective analysis was conducted at the Rheumatology Clinic of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and comprised prospectively co

Clinical and polysomnographic features of patients with Restless Legs Syndrome

Semra Mungan, Murat Ozcan, Gurdal Orhan, Ayse Titiz, Berna Arli, Sabri Koseoglu, Fikri Ak, Haci Huseyin Dere.

Objective: To reveal clinical and polysomnographic features in patients treated for restless leg syndrome, and to examine the compatibility of sleep data and clinical features.
Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Neurology, Ankara Numune Training and Educati

Assessment of mental workload and academic motivation in medical students

Kumru Didem Atalay, Gulin Feryal Can, Saban Remzi Erdem, Ibrahim Haldun Muderrisoglu.

Objectives: To investigate the level of correlation and direction of linearity between academic motivation and subjective workload.
Method: The study was conducted at Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from December 2013 to February 2014, and comprised Pha

Quality of life of Pakistani medical students studying in a private institution

Sajida Naseem, Fizza Orooj, Haider Ghazanfar, Ali Ghazanfar.

Objectives: To find the quality of life of medical students using a World Health Organisation questionnaire.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2015 at Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised students studying in an integrated m

Clinical features and outcomes of Candidaemia in cancer patients: Results from Pakistan

Aun Raza, Waleed Zafar, Amjad Mahboob, Summiya Nizammudin, Naveed Rashid, Faisal Sultan.

Objective: To evaluate clinical risk factors and outcomes among cancer patients with candidaemia at a large cancer treatment centre.
Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised

Outcome of VVF repair without omental interposition

Fazal Wahab, Amir Nasir, Fazal Manan.

Objective: To find out the outcome in cases of vesicovaginal fistula repair.
Methods: The descriptive study was conducted at the District Headquarter Hospital, Timergara, Lower Dir, Pakistan, from November 1, 2011 to November 2013, and comprised all patients admitted in Urolo

Medical errors and patient safety in the operating room

Esra Ugur, Sevim Kara, Songul Yildirim, Elif Akbal.

Objective: To investigate medical errors in the operating room, attitudes of healthcare professionals in case of errors and educational needs of professionals.
Methods: The descriptive study was conducted at a university hospital in Turkey from January 25 to February 14, 2011

Short Reports >>

Epidemiology of drowning and near drowning at Karachi beaches from 2012 to 2014

Masood Ali Shaikh.

Karachi Municipal Corporation\'s Emergency Response Center\'s lifeguards save drowning individuals, recover dead bodies of drowned individuals, and provide first aid care to injured victims of near-drowning and road traffic accidents on the road along the various beaches.Cumulatively302 d

Short Communication >>

Effect of body mass index on outcome of labour induction

Farheen Yousuf, Tahira Naru, Sana Sheikh.

The retrospective study to explore the adverse effect of obesity on pregnancy and labour was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients booked between 12-14 weeks and required induction of labour from January 1 to December 31, 2012. Women were

Case Reports >>

An establishment of vascular access through superior vena cava for a patient with multiple central venous stenosis or occlusion

Yong-Shu Diao, Yan-Huan Feng, Chun-Cheng Liu, Tian-Lei Cui, Ping Fu.

The patency of vascular access is of vital importance to dialysis patients. Access dysfunction is largely caused by vessel stenosis and thrombosis. Nephrologists usually find themselves helpless when all treatments fail and the vascular access seems to have exhausted. Here we report a successful

Non-functional paraganglioma of the mediastinum

Niaz Hussain Soomro, Amna Bine Zahid, Aneeqa Ahsan Zafar.

Paragangliomas are rare tumours which have the ability to secrete neuropeptide and catecholamines. Frequently, the clinical presentation of these tumours is ill defined and some may have no symptoms whatsoever until the tumour is large enough to cause symptoms secondary to local invasion and mass

Neonatal Bartter Syndrome in association with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in a neonate - a rare combination

Shabbir Hussain.

Neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubulopathy characterized by hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic metabolic alkalosis associated with increased urinary loss of sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride. There is hyperreninaemia and hyperaldosteronaemia but normotension. Cong

Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant for Criggler-Najjar Syndrome: Report of 2 cases from Pakistan

Faisal Saud Dar, Abu Bakar Hafeez Bhatti, Syeda Shaheera Hashmi, Haseeb Zia, Munir Iqbal Malik.

Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplant (APOLT) is a treatment option for certain liver disorders where liver structure is preserved. It includes Criggler Najjar syndrome (CNS), urea cycle defects and familial hypercholesterolaemia. Liver transplant as a treatment modality has only recently

Unmasking of myasthenia gravis during pegylated Alfa 2 a interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C

Ayesha Saleem.

Over last few decades, hepatitis C has emerged as a serious infection that has threatened the health and budgets of millions in the world. The objective of health professionals to treat it with recommended therapy of Alfa interferon and Ribavirin combination presents certain risks. One of the ala

The overlooked side of convulsion: bilateral posterior fracture and dislocation of proximal humerus

Mehmet Yigit, Asli Yaman, Eda Yigit, Kenan Ahmet Turkdogan.

Injuries after an epileptic convulsion have been seen commonly such as burns, head injury and dislocation of the extremities. But fractures of the extremities due to convulsion are rare. External trauma mechanism is not necessary for extremity fractures. Muscle contractions can cause increased lo

Student's Corner >>

Factors contributing to early menarche in school girls

Shamayl Munaf Ahmed, Maham Akbar Waheed, Farah Ahmad, Syed Hasan Danish.

Objective: To assess the average age of menarche in Pakistani girls from different socioeconomic backgrounds.
Methodology: This was a cross sectional study design carried out on female students studying in different schools of Karachi in 2014. Girls aged 10-14 years age were

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Female sexual dysfunction: Assessment

J.B. Sharma, Bharti kalra.

Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common complex clinical condition, with multiple etiologies, association and pathophysiologic correlations. This review includes the definition, etiology, and diagnosis of FSD. It calls for a bio psychosocial approach to FSD management, which incorporates, but

Primary Care Diabetes >>

Weekend therapy in diabetes

Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta.

This article introduces the concept of "weekend therapy", which has now become reality in diabetes. It briefly describes injectable and oral drugs which are currently available, or are in advanced stages of development, for use in once weekly administration. These include dulaglutide, e

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