Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:66, No:12 December, 2016
Editorial >>

A second major HIV outbreak in Larkana, Pakistan

Arshad Altaf, Safdar Pasha, Sten H. Vermund, Sharaf Ali Shah.

The first major outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Pakistan occurred in 2003 among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Larkana. At that time, a survey of PWID revealed that 17 out of 175 (9.7%) were confirmed HIV positive, compared to historic dat

Autoimmune hepatitis in Pakistan

Nasir Hassan Luck, Abbas Ali Tasneem.

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a potentially treatable chronic liver disease (CLD) of unknown cause, characterized by ongoing hepatocellular necroinflammation which may progress to cirrhosis if untreated. AIH is a unique clinical entity, which cannot be explaine

Planning a research project: The seven As checklist

Sanjay Kalra, Yashdeep Gupta.

The Journal of Pakistan Medical Association (JPMA) has repeatedly drawn attention to the need for robust medical research in Pakistan and beyond.1 Editors and reviewers contribute to the growth of research by suggesting tips for research

Original Articles >>

Peripartum cardiomyopathy: Frequency and predictors and indicators of clinical outcome

Shakira Perveen, Jahanara Ainuddin, Shazia Jabbar, Khalida Soomro, Arif Ali.

Objective:To determine frequency and prognostic factors of peripartum cardiomyopathy.
Methods: The prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2012 to September 2013 at Civil Hospital, Karachi. Cases were collected in the first year, and were then followed up for six mo

Effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition and arterial stiffness

Yusuf Sezen, Ibrahim Halil Altiparmak, Muslihittin Emre Erkus, Aydemir Kocarslan, Zekeriya Kaya, Ozgur Gunebakmaz, Recep Demirbag.

Objective: To examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on body composition, arterial stiffness and resting heart rate.
Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Cardiology, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey, during Ramadan 2015, and comprised overwei

Sun exposure behaviours, attitudes and protection practices among Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University Students- A survey study

Nasr-Addin Othman Bahakim, Bader Ghanem Alanazi, Mohammed Yousef Alead, Abdulrahman Bader Alaql, Nasser Abdulla Al-ogail, Fahad Abdullah Alghulaydhawi.

Objective: To evaluate sun exposure behaviours, sun protection practices, general knowledge, attitudes and awareness of University students about the benefits of sun exposure and harmful effects of too much or avoidance of sun exposure.
Methods: This cross-sectional survey st

Factors affecting the sleep status of surgical and medical patients at a University Hospital of Turkey

Dilek Cilingir, Sevilay Hintistan, Ozlem Ergene.

Objective: To determine the factors that affect sleep status of surgical and medical patients during hospitalisation.
Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted at Karadeniz Technical University\'s Farabi Hospital, Trabzon, Turkey, from July to Octobe

Attenuation of Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress induced deficits in rats by Apomorphine

Muhammad Farhan, Darakshan Jabeen Haleem.

Objective: To investigate the effects of repeated doses of apomorphine in rats exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.
Methods: The experimental case-control study was conducted in March 2011 at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, and comprised albino

Evaluation of smoking cessation practice by physicians for hospitalized patients in a tertiary hospital

Davut Baltaci, Leyla Yilmaz Aydin, Fatih Alasan, Mehmet Harun Deler, Mehmet Serkan Karacam, Yasemin Turker, Mucahit Gur, Feyza Sariguzel.

Objective: To investigate physicians\' smoking cessation practice, consultation for smoking intervention for hospitalised patients and its determinants.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Duzce University Hospital, Duzce, Turkey, from January to April 2013,

Frequency of CYP2D6*10 genotypes in Pakistani breast cancer patients taking adjuvant tamoxifen

Nusrat Nazir, Akbar Waheed, Kulsoom Farhat, Muhammad Ismail, Qaisar Mansoor.

Objective: To investigate the frequency of cytochrome P2D6*10 in breast cancer patients.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Nuclear Medicine, Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute, Islamabad, and the Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comp

The effect of ezetimibe monotheraphy on mean platelet volume in patients with hyperlipidaemia: a retrospective study of 45 patients

Yasar Sertbas, Meltem Sertbas, Ugur Ersoy, Bulent Bilir, Seracettin Gunaydin, Ali Ozdemir.

Objective: To investigate the effect of ezetimibe on platelet functions as a drug which increases mevalonate levels.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Istanbul, Turkey, and comprised record of normolipidaemic and hyperlipidaemic patients taken from the outpat

Association of vitamin D deficiency with poor glycaemic control in diabetic patients

Khalida Iqbal, Najmul Islam, Naseema Mehboobali, Ali Asghar, Mohammad Perwaiz Iqbal.

Objective: An association between serum levels of vitamin D and glycaemic control in type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients has been reported in some of the studies carried out in the West. However, there are no reports on this relationship in Pakistani diabetic patients. The aim of this s

Impact of brachytherapy applicators geometry on dose distribution in gynaecological cancer

Ateeque Ur Rehman, Saeed Ahmad Buzdar, Muhammad Hassan, Asghar Gadi, Muhammad Afzal Khan, Muhammad Naeem Anjum.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of suitable applicators for intracavitary brachytherapy to treat cervical cancer.
Methods: This study was conducted at the Bahawalpur Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, in February 2014. Dose distributions for

An intervention study to assess knowledge and attitude about reproductive health among Turkish Armed Forces

Alper Tunga Kokcu, Alper Tunga Kokcu, Omur Sayligil.

Objective: To evaluate the influence of reproductive health training given in Turkish Armed Forces on recruits\' knowledge.
Methods: This interventional study was conducted at the Basic Military Training Centre, Kutahya, Turkey, from September to October 2009, and comprised

Perceptions of rural women about contraceptive usage in district Khushab, Punjab

Aqeela Tabassum, Yasir Nawaz Manj, Tahira Rehman Gunjial, Salma Nazir.

Objective: To identify the perceptions of rural women about modern contraceptive methods and to ascertain the psycho-social and economic attitude of women about family planning methods.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha,

Functional and anatomical outcome in closed globe combat ocular injuries

Qamar Ul Islam, Mazhar Ishaq, Amer Yaqub, Muhammad Kamran Saeed.

Objective:To analyse the pattern, visual and anatomical outcome of closed globe combat-related ocular injuries sustained by troops.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, and comprised patients with oc

A PCR method based on 18S rRNA gene for detection of malaria parasite in Balochistan

Zubeda Shahwani, Abdul Aleem, Nazeer Ahmed, Muhammad Mushtaq, Sarwat Afridi.

Objective: To establish a polymerase chain reaction method based on 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene for the detection of plasmodium deoxyribonucleic acid in patients suffering from malaria symptoms.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to

Effects of oral vanadium on glycaemic and lipid profile in rats

Syed Zubair Hussain Shah, Abdul Khaliq Naveed, Amir Rashid.

Objective: Vanadyl sulphate, an inorganic tetravalent salt of transition metal vanadium is conventionally used to treat diabetes and by athletes as body-building supplement. Vanadyl sulphate is a constituent of many supplements and herbal preparations available over the counter in many par

Antenatal renal pelvic dilatation and foetal outcomes - review of cases from a tertiary care center in Karachi, Pakistan

Ruqiya Afroz, Shafia Shakoor, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Shama Munim.

Objective: To determine the incidence of antenatal renal pelvic dilatation to evaluate antenatal resolution/ progression and post-natal outcome.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised data of all women found

Role of posterior sub-tenon triamcinolone acetonide in patients of refractory macular oedema

Rana Fahad Ibraheem, Waseem Iqbal, Fawad-ur-Rehman.

Objective: To evaluate the results of posterior sub-tenon triamcinolone acetonide in patients of refractory macular oedema suffering with retinal vascular disorders.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at Layton Rahmatulla Benevolent Trust, Lahore, Pakistan,

Referral pattern of emergencies in obstetrics: Implications for defining scope of services and policy

Rahat Najam Qureshi, Rozina Sikandar, Zahra Hoodbhoy, Raffat Bano, Nigar Jabeen.

Objective: To analyse referral pattern of high-risk obstetric cases from secondary to tertiary care hospitals and to assess their maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised all re

Calvarial remodelling surgery: Neurosurgical experience of multidisciplinary craniofacial reconstruction

Abdul Ghaffar, Zahid Hussain, Shahzad Ahmed Qasmi, Shahid Hameed Chaudhry.

Objective: To evaluate the safety, cosmetic and functional outcome of craniofacial reconstruction surgery for primary craniosynostosis and clefts.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from June 2011 to D

Assessing correlation between students perception of the learning environment and their academic performance

Thamer Nouh, Shirin Anil, Alaa Alanazi, Walaa Al-Shehri, Njoud Alfaisal, Basma Alfaris, Ebtihal Alamer.

Objective: To assess the association between the learning environment and academic performance at medical colleges.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in four medical colleges in 2014 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Online questionnaire was sent to final year medical s

Knowledge and practices of nurses on cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine in Cankiri state hospital, Turkey

Ilknur Gol, OzUm Erkin.

Objective: To determine knowledge and practices of nurses on cervical cancer, human papillomavirus and its vaccine.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Cankiri Karatekin University, Cankiri, Turkey, from December 2015 to January 2016, and included nurses. . A sur

Evaluation of five discriminating indexes to distinguish Beta-Thalassemia Trait from Iron Deficiency Anaemia

Zahid Ullah, Aamer Ali Khattak, Sara Arif Ali, Javaid Hussain, Badshah Noor, Raheela Bano, Muhammad Amin Jan Mahsud.

Objective: To assess the reliability of different red blood cell indices-based formulae in the indexes formula in differential diagnosis of beta thalassemia trait and iron deficiency anaemia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January and October 2015 i

Primary care and health system performance in Pakistan: A study of basic health units of South Punjab

Syed Zuhaib Aziz, Imran Hanif.

Objective: To analyse the health system performance in the provision of primary health care in Pakistan\'s southern Punjab region.
Methods: The cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted in October 2014 in three tehsils of district Multan in the Punjab provinc

Short Reports >>

Spatial distribution of being sick or injured in the past two weeks by district in Pakistan

Masood Ali Shaikh.

This study harnessed the power of geographic information system (GIS) to summarise and visualise ten-page tabular data in two maps. The data comprised of the percentage of 5-years and older males and females who fell sick or were injured during the two weeks prior to the survey, and on their heal

Short Communication >>

ResearchGate is no longer reliable: leniency towards ghost journals may decrease its impact on the scientific community

Aamir Raoof Memon.

ResearchGate has been regarded as one of the most attractive academic social networking site for scientific community. It has been trying to improve user-centered interfaces to gain more attractiveness to scientists around the world. Display of journal related scietometric measures (such as impac

Case Reports >>

The forgotten disease - Lemierres syndrome

Ahmed Farhan, Yawar Ali Shah, Bushra Tariq Ali, Uzma Mumtaz, Umar Farooq.

Lemierre\'s syndrome refers to septic thrombosis of deep veins of the neck, is a rare and often life threatening complication following upper respiratory tract infections. We present here a case of Lemierre\'s syndrome in a previously healthy 30 years old female who had a febrile illness for

Massive pulmonary embolism presenting as seizures

Shahrukh Hashmani, Fateh Ali Tipoo Sultan, Murtaza Kazmi, Ammarah Yasmeen.

Pulmonary embolism can present in various ways, though seizure activity has been rarely reported. We report a 38 years old male who had met a road traffic accident, underwent surgery, presented a month later with seizures, chest pain, shortness of breath and low blood pressure. Massive pulmonary

Cervical chordoma involving C3/C4: A case report

Muhammad Imran, Atiq Ahmed Khan, Syed Muneeb Younus.

Chordoma is a rare, indolent but locally invasive, osteolytic, slow growing, low grade, primary bone malignancy, derived from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. It is a midline tumour and it predominantly emerges from the axial skeleton. The most commonly observed location of a chordoma is

A rare congenital liver anomaly: Hypoplasia of left hepatic lobe

Tugrul Ormeci, Secil Telli Erdogan, Asli Ormeci, Cem Aygun.

Morphologic anomalies of liver, as opposed to many other visceral organs, are very rare. Hypoplasia or agenesis of left lobe of the liver is defined as the absence of liver tissue on the left side of liver without previous disease or surgery. It is usually an incidental finding revealed by imagin

Student's Corner >>

Retrograde bullet migration from inferior vena cava into right common iliac vein following gunshot: A case report

Ibrahim Zahid, Hamza Abdur Rahim Khan, Omar Irfan, Benish Fatima, Maha Tahir, Muhammad Tariq, Fazal Wahab Khan, Saulat Fatimi.

Bullet embolization cases are rare and even rarer are its retrograde migration in the veins. We report the case of a 14 year old male with a gunshot wound to the left side of his chest. CT scan revealed bilateral haemothorax and foreign body in the right common iliac vein. The patient was immedia

Letter to the Editor >>

Rejuvenating lost communication through script training

Nadir Ali, Muhammad Shaban Rafi, Muhammad Sikander Ghayas Khan, Uzma Mahfooz.

Madam, if language is considered a tool of communication; it would be significant to mention the effectiveness of script training as an intervention therapy for patients who have lost their language due to aphasia.
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder of communication resulting from th

Proton pump inhibitors use; beware of side-effects

Noman ul Haq, Sohail Riaz, Aqeel Nasim.

Madam, we have read an interesting review article published by Syed IAA, Naqvi SHA1 entitled as “Proton pump inhibitors use; beware of side-effects”. Although, this is an importantly written article highlighting the safety issues of one of the most frequently us

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Sleep hygiene and diabetes

Sandeep Kumar, K.V.S. Hari Kumar.

Sleep is a physiological state that helps in the smooth functioning of many organ systems in the body by maintaining the circadian rhythms. Human beings spend about one third of their life in sleep. Sleep hygiene is a practice of good quality and quantity of sleep, which ensures day time alertnes

Primary Care Diabetes >>

Health risk calculators for Pakistan

Sanjay Kalra.

This brief article describes risk calculators that are based on populations of Pakistani ethnicity, and can be used for risk stratification in Pakistani and other South Asian clinics. Covering the QRISK, QKidney, QThrombosis, QFracture and QCancer risk calculators, it uses examples to explain how

Systematic Review >>

Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan: Current prevalence and future forecast

Sultan Ayoub Meo, Inam Zia, Ishfaq A Bukhari, Shoukat Ali Arain.

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic health problem of all age groups, both gender, involves rural and urban areas and developing and developed countries globally. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan.
Systematic bibliographic search of scien

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