Welcome to Journal Of Pakistan Medical Association
   Issue Vol:67, No:5 May, 2017
Editorial >>

Eliminating wrong blood transfusions - recent advances

Farheen Karim.

Blood transfusion is and will remain a life-saving therapeutic option for many diseases. However, zero risk of transfusion still remains a dream to be fulfilled. The major risks of blood transfusion include transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) and adverse transfusion reactions.1<

Original Articles >>

Performance of TUBEX® TF in the diagnosis of enteric fever in private tertiary care Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan

Kamran Khan, Luma Khalid, Khatira Wahid, Iftikhar Ali.

Objective: To evaluate the performance of TUBEX® TF in diagnosing enteric fever.
Methods: The retrospective study was performed at the Northwest General Hospital and Research Centre, Peshawar, Pakistan, and comprised data of all patients who had blood cultures and TUBEX&r

Microbiological pattern of diabetic foot infections at a tertiary care center in a developing country

Zahid Miyan, Asher Fawwad, Rubina Sabir, Abdul Basit.

Objective: To determine the microbiological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of organisms isolated from diabetic foot ulcers in a tertiary care hospital Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at the Baqai Institute of Diabetology and En

Antibiotics in acute calculous cholecystitis - do Tokyo guidelines influence the surgeons' practices?

Hassaan Bari, Muhammad Rizwan Khan, Amir Hafeez Shariff.

Objective: To observe changes in surgeons\' practice of antibiotic usage in patients with acute cholecystitis before and after the implementation of Tokyo Guidelines.
Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi,

Amplification of Mitochondrial DNA for detection of Plasmodiumvivax in Balochistan

Muhammad Naeem Shahwani, Samia Nisar, Abdul Aleem, Marina Panezai, Sarwat Afridi, Shaukat Iqbal Malik.

Objective: To access a new step using PCR to amplify the targeted mtDNA sequence for detecting specifically Plasmodium vivax and its co-infections, false positive and false negative results with Plasmodium falciparum.
Methods: In this study we have standardized a new technica

Practice of breastfeeding and Immunisation in a periurban community in Pakistan

Haider Ghazanfar, Sualeha Saleem, Sajida Naseem, Ali Ghazanfar.

Objective: To assess the practice of breastfeeding and immunisation in a peri-urban community and correlate it with maternal care during pregnancy of the index child.
Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted at Shifa Tameer-e-Millat University and S

Candidiasis: Prevalence and resistance profiling in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan

Bushra Jamil, Mohammad Tauseef Mukhtar Bokhari, Azhar Saeed, Mohammad Zahid Mukhtar Bokhari, Zakir Hussain, Tayyaba Khalid, Habib Bokhari, Mohammad Imran, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi.

Objective: To determine Candida colonisation/infection in renal transplant patients and to determine the resistance pattern against antifungal drugs.
Method: This prospective, observational study was conducted at Al-Sayyed Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January to Octo

Comparison of ketamine-propofol and ketamine-dexmedetomidine combinations in children for sedation during tooth extraction

Dilek Gunay Canpolat, Mustafa Denizhan Yildirim, Nukhet Kutuk, Fatma Dogruel, Hakan Ocak, Recep Aksu, Alper Alkan.

Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of ketamine-propofol and ketamine-dexmedetomidine drugs in children for sedation during tooth extraction.
Methods: The randomised, prospective study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry,

The bilobed flap - a better option for soft tissue release in the management of Radial Club Hand

Uzair Ahmed Qazi, Ishtiaq ur Rehman Orakzai, Mamoon Rashid.

Objective: To establish that the bilobed flap as soft tissue release component for the radial club hand is superior to the z-plasty technique in type III and IV radial club hands.
Methods: This study was conducted at the Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from

Estimation of uncertainty measurement - A prerequisite of ISO1589 accreditation for clinical laboratories

Sahar Iqbal, Aamir Ijaz, Shaheen Sharafat.

Objective: To estimate relative expanded uncertainty measurement of routine clinical chemistry analytes for international organisation for standardisation 15189 accreditation.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Dow International Medical College, Karachi, fro

School going adolescents' perception of family climate and mental problems: Results from Kocaeli, Turkey

Safak Eray, Ayse Pinar Vural, Deniz Sigirli.

Objective: To investigate the association between the perception of expressed emotion and psychopathology of school-going adolescents in a non-clinical sample.
Methods: The cross-sectional field study was conducted in Kocaeli, Turkey, and comprised high-school students durin

Effect of skill laboratory training on academic performance of medical students

Muhammad Alamgir Khan, Faizania Shabbir, Khadija Qamar, Tausif Ahmed Rajput.

Objective: To observe the effect of skill lab training on academic performance of final year medical students in terms of marks obtained in long case, short case, objective structured clinical examination and viva.
Methods: The cross-sectional comparative study was conducted

Effect of Citrullus colocynthis aqueous seed extract on beta cell regeneration and intra-islet vasculature in alloxan induced diabetic male albino rats

Alia Amin, Mohammad Tahir, Khalid Pervez Lone.

Objective: To observe the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on beta cell regeneration and intra-islet vasculature.
Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan, from February 2013 to January 2014. It comprised male wistar

Under-representation of women in the editorial boards of medical and dental journals of Pakistan

Nausheen Bakht, Samiullah Arshad, Syed Shahid Nafees Zaidi.

Objective: To explore the representation of females in the field of medical journal editing in Pakistan.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July 3 to 15, 2015 at Combined Military Hospital, Lahore. After exploring the website of Pakistan Medical and Dental

Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children

Tazvin Ijaz, Attikah Nasir, Naema Sarfraz, Shirmeen Ijaz.

Objective: To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale.
Methods: This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren a

Self-related factors and decision making styles among early adults

Naila Batool, Muhammad Naveed Riaz, Muhammad Akram Riaz, Masud Akhtar.

Objective: To examine the effect of self-related factors, including self-regulation, self-esteem and self-efficacy, on decision-making styles of early adults.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from February to August, 2014 at four universities of Islamabad, Pak

Visual outcome of retinal vein occlusion in patients residing at high altitude

Ahsan Mukhtar, Muhammad Saim Khan, Asad Habib, Mazhar Ishaq, Omer Farooq.

Objective: To study visual outcome in patients of high altitude retinopathy presenting with retinal venous occlusion.
Methods: The randomised clinical trial study was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from January 2013 to December

Status of cold chain in routine immunisation centres of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in Quetta, Pakistan

Rahim Buledi, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Jamil Ahmed, Aamir Akram Alizai.

Objective: To determine the status of cold chain and knowledge and practices of health workers about cold chain maintenance in routine immunisation health centres.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Quetta, Pakistan, from May to July 2012, and comprised heal

Evaluation of a communication skills training course for medical students using peer role-play

Nasra Naeim Ayuob, Mahdi Ali Qadi, Basem Salama El Deek, Abdulaziz Mohamed Boker.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of using peer role-playing in learning the communication skills as a step in the development of the communication skills training course delivered to pre-clinical medical students.
Method: This study was conducted at the King Abdulaziz Univer

Frequency and predictors of metabolic syndrome in adolescents /first year medical students of a public sector medical college Quetta, Pakistan

Faisal Shahzad, Aiesha Ishaque, Noman ul Haq.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in medical students.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Bolan Medical College, Quetta, Pakistan, from August 2015 to January 2016, and comprised healthy first-year medical students. Demographic

Review Articles >>

Management of cervical trauma: A Brief review

Mohsin Qadeer, Salman Sharif.

Cervical injury is not uncommon in any trauma, especially in road traffic accident. A standard approach, towards, transport, workup, and management is required for best outcomes, and decrease morbidity. We tried to review the recent literature and briefly discuss the management protocols conclude

Short Reports >>

A comparative study of dynamic soft tissue mobilization vs. passive stretching technique to improve the flexibility of hamstrings in cricket players

Mohsin Abbas, Muhammad Salman Bashir, Rabiya Noor.

Different therapies are available for correcting the tightness of hamstring muscles. Objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Dynamic Soft Tissue Mobilization DSTM technique and Passive Stretching PS to improve the flexibility of tight hamstrings in cricket players. A total of

Intellectual wellness in medical university teachers: Gender based comparison

Sadiqa Syed, Rehana Rehman, Mehwish Hussain, Saifullah Shaikh.

A cross section, questionnaire based study was carried out from January 2012 till December 2014 to compare intellectual wellness (IW) awareness on the basis of gender in teachers of basic sciences at medical universities of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected from 3 public and 5 private medical

Medicinal role of papaya seeds on thrombocyte count tested on healthy rabbits

Asadullah, Asif Ahmed, Farhat Jehan.

The main objective of the current study is to evaluate the medicinal role of Papaya seeds on thrombocyte count and hepatic parameter on healthy rabbits. Experimental and Interventional study, at the Department of pharmacology Baqai Medical University Karachi. Rabbits (18 in number different age a

Comparison of low level laser therapy and interferential current on post stroke shoulder pain

Fahmida Jan, Aamir Naeem, Arshad Nawaz Malik, Imran Amjad, Tariq Malik.

The objective of the study was to compare the effects of LASER therapy and Interferential current on post stroke shoulder pain. Diagnosed patients (n=38) of post stroke shoulder pain were randomly divided into two groups i.e., LASER group (LG =20 patients) and Interferential current group (IFCG=1

Case Reports >>

Ophthalmo-genetic analysis of Pakistani patients with nonsyndromic oculocutaneous albinism through whole exome sequencing

Hadia Gul, Muhammad Zeeshan Ali, Ejazullah Khan, Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Badar, Saadullah Khan, Abdul Haleem Shah, Muzammil Ahmad Khan.

Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a disorder of defective melanin biosynthesis that is characterized by hypo-pigmentation of skin, hair and retinal pigment epithelium. Phenotypically, OCA patients exhibit white milky skin, whitish to golden hair and deterioration of retinal cells. Until recently,

Twin abdominal pregnancy - A rare scenario

Faiqa Chughtai.

Twin abdominal pregnancy is rarely encountered by gynaecologists throughout their professional career. It poses a challenge in terms of diagnosis and management. This case report is about a patient who was diagnosed and successfully managed for this complication at a peripheral hospital of Pakist

Extraoral approach of the surgical treatment of sublingual epidermoid cyst: A case report

Yavuz Findik, Olgun Topal, Mehmet Fatih Senturk, Timucin Baykul.

Epidermoid and dermoid cysts account for <0.01% of all oral cavity lesions with dermoid cyst which is twice as common to epidermoid. Epidermoid cysts are benign lesions that occur rarely in children. They usually present early in life as an asymptomatic mass. The treatment option is surgical a

Spontaneous evisceration of umbilical hernia in a patient with congenital nephrotic syndrome

Nilufer Goknar, Gokhan Gundogdu, Mehmet Kucukkoc, Aysegul Dogan Demir, Aysel Vehapoglu, Faruk Oktem.

Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a term used to describe a condition in babies who develop severe proteinuria and hypoalbuminaemia within their first three months of life. They generally have oedema and ascites from birth which, because of increased intra-abdominal pressure, can result in an umbi

Case series of rare Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)

Naveed Haroon Rashid, Saba Farooq, Mohammad Ahmed, Ali Bin Sarwar Zubairi.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare lung disease where periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive eosinophilic material accumulates in the alveoli of the lungs. Here we describe two cases of young males who presented with dynpnoea and weight loss. The HRCT scan of the chest in both cases show

Accuracy of frozen sections in oral cancer resections, an experience of a tertiary care hospital

Sayed Akbar Abbas, Mubasher Ikram, Muhammad Usman Tariq, Ahmed Raheem, Javeria Saeed.

The aim our study was to determine the accuracy of frozen sections in oral cancer resections. Patients who underwent oral cancer resection at Patel Hospital were included in the study. Tissues for frozen sections were obtained from the mucosal margins and tumour bed. Frozen sections were compared

Student's Corner >>

Multidisciplinary approach to the prenatal diagnosis and Post natal management of a large suprasellar arachnoid cyst: A case report

Omar Irfan, Heera Nand Rathore, Sarfraz Karim, Shabina Ariff, Aneela Darbar.

Arachnoid cysts are intra-arachnoid sacs filled with cerebrospinal fluid representing a rare occurence in neonates. We report the case of a suprasellar arachnoid cyst diagnosed prenatally at 21 weeks gestation on routine obstetric ultrasound. A cystic lesion was picked up incidentally at routine

Letter to the Editor >>

Short-term antibacterial efficacy of a new silver nanoparticle-containing toothbrush

Ozgul Baygin, Tamer Tuzuner, Nagehan Yilmaz, Simge Aksoy.

It is well known that dental plaque is a predominant cause of biofilm-originated periodontal problems and carious lesions.1 To control the biofilm-associated oral pathogens in the oral flora, mechanical and/or chemical plaque removal methods must be used.2

Intraosseous access over central venous or peripheral venous line as an initial means of resuscitation- A possible measure for improving outcomes of cardiac arrests

Saad Ullah, Anas Siddiqui, Noman Ahmed Jang Khan.

Madam, advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines recommend obtaining immediate vascular access as a part of resuscitation protocol. This can be obtained via a central line, peripheral line or intraosseous line. The use of peripheral and central line is the usual practice with intraosseous l

Higher education needs more improvement: The case of Pakistan

Aamir Raoof Memon, Malik Muhammad Ali Awan.

Madam, Misconduct and fraud in academia have always been a big problem for developing country researchers, and organizations like the Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan have been struggling to block this dark side of science by blacklisting the academics involved in these unethical practi

Publish or perish: A sign of caution for authors to avoid predatory journals

Aamir Raoof Memon.

Madam, the rapid rise in the number of predatory journals and invitations to submit are more than a nuisance to the researchers.1,2 And, this problem can be further escalated by the sudden disappearance of Beall\'s blog resulting in a major damage to the scientific publis

Special Communication >>

Nature, scope and use of economic evaluation of healthcare programmes: with special reference to Pakistan

Muhammad Ashar Malik, Saleem Perwaiz Iqbal, Farina Gul Abrejo.

Economic evaluation (EE)/cost effectiveness analysis(CEA) of healthcare programmes is an emerging area, yet the resource base to apprehend EE/CEA is very limited in Pakistan. This paper attempts to fill this gap by providing a basic text in the field of EE with special reference to Pakistan. We u

Recent Advances In Endocrinology >>

Malaria and diabetes

Sanjay Kalra, Deepak Khandelwal, Rajiv Singla, Sameer Aggarwal, Deep Dutta.

Both malaria and diabetes are more common in the developing world, and are major public health challenges. A direct relationship between these 2 conditions has not been evaluated. This review article assessed the literature guaging the relationship between these two conditions, and suggests a pra

Primary Care Diabetes >>

Sleep hygiene and diabetes: Suggestions for primary care

Avinash De Sousa, Sanjay Kalra.

Sleep problems are common in chronic disorders like diabetes and are the result of poor diet and unhealthy lifestyles. Comprehensive management of diabetes entails lifestyle management and restoration of good habits. Sleep hygiene maintenance helps persons living with diabetes enjoy a better qual

Systematic Review >>

The confounding factors leading to plagiarism in academic writing and some suggested remedies: A systematic review

Salman Yousuf Guraya, Shaista Salman Guraya.

There is a staggering upsurge in the incidence of plagiarism of scientific literature. Literature shows divergent views about the factors that make plagiarism reprehensible. This review explores the causes and remedies for the perennial academic problem of plagiarism. Data sources were searched f

Audit Article >>

Over a decade of changing trends in surgical mortality; audit from a tertiary care hospital

Hassaan Bari, Khawaja Mohammad Inam Pal, Akbar Jaleel Zubairi.

Objective: A retrospective audit of the trend of mortality in the general surgery service at our hospital over the last decade was conducted to reflect the complexity of cases being seen.
Methods: Mortalities of 8 separate years, a decade apart, namely 1997, 1998, 1999, a

Evidence Based Neuro-Oncology >>

Prognostic significance of IDH 1 mutation in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim.

Focus of brain tumour research is shifting towards tumour genesis and genetics, and possible development of individualized treatment plans. Genetic analysis shows recurrent mutation in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) gene in most Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. In this review we evaluated th



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