Christopher Alan Lewis ( Department of Psychology, Institute for Health, Medical Sciences and Society, Glyndwr University, Plas Coch Campus, Wales, UK. )
Sadia Musharraf ( Department of Applied Psychology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan. )
Madam, the 90-item Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)1 is a self-report measure that operationalises Eysenck's model of personality.2 In addition to the original English language version,1there now exists a large number of foreign language translations,3,4 including Urdu.5,6 For both clinicians and researchers, the administration of 90 items may be prohibitive due to time or space constraints. Therefore a number of shorter measures,derived from the original EPQ, as well as the 100-item Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR),7 havebeen developed.
The 48-item Short Form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-S)7,8 was developed "for use when time is very limited" (p. 24), and the 24-item AbbreviatedForm of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-A)9 for when "it could well be the case that researchers find a 48-item questionnaire still too long for convenience" (p. 444). All of the items of the EPQR-S and EPQR-Aare common to the EPQR, but are not all items common to the EPQ. In addition to the original English language version of the EPQR-S,7 and the EPQR-A9 there now exist a small number of foreign language translations: Hebrew,10 French,11 Czech,12 Spanish,13 Greece,15 German,15 Turkish,16 and Hindi.17
The present aim was to develop Urdu translations of both the EPQR-S and the EPQR-A for use when administration time, or space within surveys, is limited working with Urdu speakers. As only the EPQ, and not the EPQR, has been translated into Urdu,5 44 of the 48 items of the EPQR-S, and 22 of the 24 items of the EPQR-A, were already available in Urdu.8,9 Therefore, requiring four unique items to be translated. This was undertaken using the back translation method by three experienced translators familiar with psychological research. The translated items were evaluated further for clarity of content, grammar, and syntactic structure by a regional language expert (Table-1).
Table-2 contains the original EPQ item numbers, and the item number within the EPQR-S and the EPQR-A.
Urdu translations of the EPQR-S and the EPQR-A are now available for both clinical and research work.
However, it must be noted that the newly translated four items must be used in conjunction with existing items of the Urdu translation of the EPQ, and that permission must be obtained by the copyright owner before use.5
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2. Eysenck HJ, Eysenck MW. Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach. New York: Plenum; 1985.
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5. Kousar R, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Urdu translation and adaptation in Pakistan). Unpublished questionnaire, University of the Punjab, Pakistan.2001.
6. Amjad N, Kousar R. A comparative study of personality of males and females arts and science students.(Unpublished M. Phil thesis). Department of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore; 2001
7. Eysenck SBG, Eysenck HJ, Barrett P. A revised version of the Psychoticism Scale. Pers Individ Dif 1985; 6: 21-9.
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10. Katz YJ, Francis LJ. Hebrew Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: Short Form (EPQR-S) and Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A). Soc Behav Pers 2000; 28: 555-60.
11. Lewis CA, Francis LJ, Shevlin M, Forrest S. Confirmatory factor analysis of the French translation of the Abbreviated Form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-A). Europe J Psychol Assess 2002; 18: 179-85
12. Navrátil M, McGuckin C, Lewis CA, Shevlin, M, Francis LJ. [Confirmatory factor analysis of the Czech translation of Abbreviated Form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-A) among Czech students]. Cesk Psychol 2003; 47: 451-59.
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14. Alexopoulos DS, Kalaitzidis I. Psychometric properties of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) Short Scale in Greece. Pers Individ Dif 2004; 37: 1205-20.
15. Francis LJ, Lewis CA, Ziebertz HG. The Short-Form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQR-S): A German edition. Soc Behav Personal 2006; 34: 197-204.
16. Karanci AN, Dirik G, Yorulmaz O. Reliability and validity studies of Turkish translation of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2007; 18: 254-61.
17. Tiwari T, Singh AL, Singh IL. The Short-Form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire: A Hindi edition (EPQRS-H). Ind Psychiatry J 2009; 18: 27-31.