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December-B 2020, Volume 70, Issue 12


A potential 2nd Wave of COVID-19: An approaching reality

Bassim Al Bahrani  , Itrat Mehdi

The pandemic of 2019-2020 coronavirus (COVID-19) has no parallel in recent times as a rapidly evolving catastrophe. Life has drastically changed as lock downs, and social distancing have become the new norms. There are no approved standard therapies and the future situation is quite uncertain. Patients with comorbidities, older age, cancer, or immunocompromised appear to be at a higher risk of a complicated course and higher mortality.

Environmental endocrinology: Expanding spectrum, evolving science

Sanjay Kalra

Humans are surrounded by, and live in, their environment. The World Health Organization defines environment (in relation to health), as “all the physical, chemical and biological factors external to a person, and all related behaviours”. The environment impacts our health in multiple and interlinked ways. As a corollary, we can modify our environment to improve our health as well.


Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees: