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January-B 2021, Volume 71, Issue 1


Surgery re-imagined: The digital revolution

Irfan Rizvi

Anaesthesia and asepsis made surgery humane and safe in the latter half of the nineteenth century. The twentieth century brought laparoscopy, open-heart surgery, organ transplant and surgical staplers, amongst other advances. Today, the digital revolution is ushering in a new era in surgery. While some contend that this might serve to further dehumanize medicine, there is no denying that the smart deployment of technology can improve surgical safety and precision as well as improve the well-being of those it serves.



Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees: