Objective: To analyse the relationship of self-efficacy and social support with academic burnout of nursing students.
Method: The correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2021 at the Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia, and comprised nursing students in the 4th and 6th semesters of their academic programme. Data was collected using self-efficacy and social support questionnaires as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey.
Results: Of the 184 subjects, 160(87%) were females and 24(13%) were males; 98(43.3%) were from the 4th semester and 86(46.7%) were from the 6th; 66(36.4%) were aged 20 years, followed by 65(35.9%) aged 21 years; and East Java was the hometown for 163(88.6%) students. Self-efficacy (p=0.005; r=-0.205) and social support (p=0.000; r=-0.265) were significantly associated with academic burnout.
Conclusion: Higher self-efficacy and social support levels may lead to lower academic burnout among nursing students.
Keywords: Self-efficacy, Burnout, Psychological, Social support, Nursing. (JPMA 73: S-63 [Suppl. 2]; 2023)
Students at higher education levels have academic demands with a higher intensity.1.Online learning makes students vulnerable to stress, such as difficulty adapting to the environment, no face-to-face meetings, lack of free time, and feeling anxious about making mistakes.2 Nursing students participating in direct clinical practice in hospitals were diverted to online learning for their safety during the active phase of the coronavirus disease-219 (COVID-19) epidemic.3,4.Excessive and continuous academic demands can trigger students to experience stress that may lead to academic burnout.5 Individuals who experience academic burnout will feel physically and mentally bored, lose interest in learning, and feel helpless and hopeless.6
According to a study, nursing students experienced burnout, 67% experienced moderate emotional exhaustion, 62% experienced mild cynicism and 56% experienced a moderate decrease in achievement.7 Burnout in 100 nursing students in Brazil showed that it happened in the first year in 11.1% cases, second year 37.5%, third year 33.3% and the fourth year 8.3%.8 Based on the previous study at the Faculty of Nursing in Surabaya, there are signs of academic burnout among students; 32.5 % felt emotionally exhausted whereas 42.9% had a decrease in tasks achievement.9
Academic self-efficacy can be a predicting factor that affects academic burnout in students.10,11.Self-efficacy can affect the amount of effort made in dealing with obstacles and how stressful the situation is due to the demands of the situation.12,13 Environmental factor that contributes to academic burnout is social support.14,15 Social support can help students adapt to the various academic pressures they face so as to prevent the emergence of symptoms of academic burnout in them.16 Social support affects all activities carried out by students and is a key factor in the formation of perceptions of everything that is being carried out.17
The burnout syndrome theory suggests that academic burnout in students does not happen by itself, but there are personal and environmental causative factors.18 Among the personal factors, self-efficacy is an aspect of individual knowledge to improve personal abilities, like self-confidence, adaptability, cognitive capacity, intelligence and the capacity to act in stressful situations.19 Among the environmental factors, social support can make individuals think more positively about difficult situations in facing challenges, and make themselves aware that there are other people who care.20
The current study was planned to analyse the relationship of self-efficacy and social support with academic burnout among nursing students.
Subjects and Methods
The correlational, cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2021 at the Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. After approval from the institutional ethics review committee, the sample size was calculated using the Slovin formula.21 The sample was raised using simple random sampling technique. Those included were nursing students of either gender in the 4th and 6th semesters of their academic programme, while the rest of the students were excluded. All who were included had signed the inform consent form before starting the research.
Data was collected using questionnaires. The self-efficacy questionnaire consisted of magnitude, strength and generality indicators.22 The social support questionnaire consisted of emotional support, instrumental support, informational support and friendship support dimensions.23 The Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) questionnaire consisted of fatigue, depersonalisation, and decreased academic achievement indicators.24,25
Data was analysed using Spearman Rho-test. Self-efficacy and social support were the independent variables, while academic burnout was the dependent variable. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Of the 184 subjects, 160(87%) were females and 24(13%) were males; 98(43.3%) were from the 4th semester and 86(46.7%) were from the 6th; 66(36.4%) were aged 20 years, followed by 65(35.9%) aged 21 years; and East Java was the hometown for 163(88.6%) students (Table 1).
Self-efficacy (p=0.005; r=-0.205) and social support (p=0.000; r=-0.265) were significantly associated with academic burnout (Tables 2-3).
The study showed there was a relationship between self-efficacy and academic burnout. Self-efficacy is significantly related to academic burnout and the two variables are negatively correlated.26 The importance of the role of students’ self-efficacy can increase their ability to master lecture material and to be able to control themselves from stressful situations. During the active phase of pandemic, the students needed high self-efficacy to be able to face the pressure and be able to adapt quickly to new elements, like online learning.27,28 The students had low self-efficacy characterised by feeling tired, tending to procrastinate, feeling bored at home, feeling bored with the learning process, being unable to meet other people, having limited internet quota, and being unable to apply laboratory practice learning due to the unavailability of relevant tools. This low self-efficacy can lead to academic burnout. Therefore, academic burnout experienced can be reduced by increasing self-efficacy. Self-efficacy can be increased in various ways, one of which is by giving self-affirmations which can encourage a person to view aspects that are more positively.29 Self-affirmation is also able to develop an optimistic mindset by looking at one’s abilities and potential and to reduce the tendency to continue to think about unpleasant situations so that it may foster a sense of self-confidence.30
There was also a relationship between social support and academic burnout in the current study. Social support is one of the factors that the students must have because it can help make it easier to adjust to their environment so they may not feel alone in facing problems or obstacles.31 Individuals receive support from other people in their lives and feel that others care, respect and love them. Social support can help one to survive and overcome pressures.1 The social support received by students affect the students in forming perceptions of everything they are going through.17
Social support has a role known as the buffering effect, which means that the effect of social support only arises when students are under high pressure; if the pressure on individual is low, then the effect of social support is not very visible32. During the active phase of the pandemic, the frequency of meetings with other people, such as friends or relatives, was limited, making individuals feel less social support from those around them.1
Social support impacts students psychologically and emotionally, which is very important for students as it is related to self-confidence and motivation which are key to avoiding academic burnout.
Self-efficacy and social support had a significant relationship with academic burnout among nursing students.
Acknowledgment: We are grateful to all the participants, and to Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia.
Disclaimer: The text has been presented as an Abstract at the 13th International Nursing Conference 2022, held by the Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia.
Conflict of Interest: None.
Source of Funding: None.
1. Muflihah L, Savira SI. The impact of social support perception to academic burnout akademik during Covid pandemic. J Penelit Psikol 2021;8:201-11.
2. Nurhidayati T, Rahayu DA, Alfiyanti D. Nursing students’ coping for burnout and fatigue online learning during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2021;9:92–6.
3. Dewart G, Corcoran L, Thirsk L, Petrovic K. Nursing education in a pandemic: Academic challenges in response to COVID-19. Nurse Educ Today 2020;92:104471. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2020.104471.
4. Rohmani N, Andriani R. Correlation between academic self-efficacy and burnout originating from distance learning among nursing students in Indonesia during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. J Educ Eval Health Prof 2021;18:9. doi: 10.3352/jeehp. 2021.18.9.
5. Fernández-Castillo A. State-Anxiety and Academic Burnout Regarding University Access Selective Examinations in Spain During and After the COVID-19 Lockdown. Front Psychol 2021;12:621863. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.621863.
6. Christiana E. Academic burnout during Covid 19 pandemic. In: Proceedings of Guidance and Counseling Seminar. Surabaya, Indonesia: Universitas Negeri Surabaya, 2020; pp 8–15.
7. Alimah S. Burnout in the Collage students. [Online] 2016 [Cited 2022 December 29]. Available from URL: https://www.academia.edu/ 30504411/Gambaran_Burnout_pada_Mahasiswa_Keperawatan_pdf
8. Vasconcelos EM, Trindade CO, Barbosa LR, Martino MMF. Predictive factors of burnout syndrome in nursing students at a public university. Rev Esc Enferm USP 2020;54:e03564. doi: 10.1590/S1980-220X2018044003564.
9. Rasyidah QA, Fitryasari R, Wahyudi AS. A Relationship Between Stress Level And Burnout Syndrome With Sleep Quality On Clinical Nursing Students In Faculty Of Nursing Universitas Airlangga. Nurs J 2020;2:16-25. Doi: 10.20473/pnj.v1i1.19209.
10. Fernández-Arata M, Dominguez-Lara SA, Merino-Soto C. Single-item academic burnout and its relationship with academic self-efficacy in college students. Enferm Clin 2017;27:60-1. doi: 10.1016/ j.enfcli.2016.07.001.
11. Agesti L, Fitryasari R, Armini N, Yusuf A. Relationship of smartphone addiction and self-efficacy with academic achievement in adolescents. Psychiatry Nursing Journal (Jurnal Keperawatan Jiwa) 2019;1:1–6. Doi: 10.20473/pnj.v1i1.12302.
12. Puspitasari DA, Handayani MM. The relationship of teacher’s self-efficacy to burnout level in the inclusive school in Surabaya. J Psikol Pendidik dan Perkemb 2014;3:59–68.
13. Anjaswarni T, Nursalam N, Widati S, Yusuf A, Tristiana RD. Development of a self-efficacy model in junior and senior high school students based on religiosity and family determinants: A cross sectional approach. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021;33:2019-0023Doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2019-0023.
14. Kim B, Jee S, Lee J, An S, Lee SM. Relationships between social support and student burnout: A meta-analytic approach. Stress Health 2018;34:127-34. doi: 10.1002/smi.2771.
15. Azizah LM, Zainuri I, Kotijah S. Path analysis of social support as determinant of anxiety in people at risk of covid-19 during the pandemic. Indones J Community Heal Nurs 2021;6:12–7.
16. Nursalam N, Armini NKA, Fauziningtyas R. Family social support reduces post judegemental stress in teenagers. Jurnal Ners 2009;4:182-9. Doi: 10.20473/jn.v4i2.5032.
17. Dimala CP, Rohayati N. Academic Burnout Contribution And Social Support On Academic Engagement In Students. Jurnal Psikologi Universitas Buana Perjuangan Karawang 2019;4:1–9. DOI: 10.36805/ psikologi.v4i2.833.
18. Orpina S, Prahara SA. Self-efficacy and academic burnout in the working collage students. Indones J Educ Couns 2019;3:119–30.
19. Oktariani. Relationship between self-efficacy and peer social support to self regulated learning in collage students. Tabularasa J Ilm Magister Psikol 2018;2:26–33.
20. Adawiyah RAR. Emosional inteligent, social support anda tend to burnout. Persona, Jurnal Psikologi Indonesia 2013;2:99–107. DOI: 10.30996/persona.v2i2.97.
21. Black TR. Doing quantitative research in the social sciences: An integrated approach to research design, measurement, and statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc, 2005; pp 118.
22. Bandura A. Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In: Pajares F, Urdan T, eds. Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents. North Carolina, United States: IAP-Information Age Publishing, 2006; pp 307-38.
23. Lyons JS, Perrotta P, Hancher-Kvam S. Perceived social support from family and friends: measurement across disparate samples. J Pers Assess 1988;52:42-7. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_3.
24. Schaufeli WB, Martinez MI, Pinto AM, Salanova M, Bakker AB. Burnout and engagement in university students - a cross national study. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2002;33:464–81. Doi: 10.1177/ 0022022102033005003.
25. Maslach C,Jackson SE, Leiter MP. Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual, 4th ed. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc; 2018.
26. Arlinkasari F, Akmal Z. Relatinship between school engagement, academic self-efficacy and academic burnout in collage students. Humanit (Jurnal Psikologi) 2017;1:81–102.
27. Maulana I, Alfian IN. The influence ofself-efficacy and self adaptation to academic stress in collage students during Covid 19 pandemic. Bul Ris Psikol Dan Kesehat Ment 2021;1:829–34.
28. Kusumawardani W, Nursalam N, Nihayati H. The effect of a combination of group therapy and support on the self-efficacy and deviant behavior of adolescents. J Ners 2020;15(Special issue 1):20531. doi: 10.20473/jn.v15i1Sp.20531
29. Cohen GL, Sherman DK. The psychology of change: self-affirmation and social psychological intervention. Annu Rev Psychol 2014;65:333-71. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-010213-115137.
30. Howell AJ. Self-affirmation theory and the science of well-being. J Happiness Stud 2017;18:293–311.
31. Mahmudi MH, Suroso S. Self-efficacy,socialsupport and self adaptation in the learning process. Pers Psikol Indones 2014;3:183–94.
32. Sarafino EP, Smith TW. Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interaction, 8th ed. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons; 2014.