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Article Categories

The following is a detailed description of the various types of articles to be published in JPMA. Authors are directed to refer to the list below and select an appropriate category for their article. Once you have done, you see below or click here to see note and format your manuscript accordingly. Failure to do follow the proper guideline can result in delays of manuscript processing or even rejection of the article.


"A systematic review of a practice, process or performance to establish how well it meets predetermined criteria. The procedure includes identifying problems, developing solutions, making changes to practice, and then reviewing the whole operation or service again."
(Source: Glossary [online] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [cited 2018 October 3] Available from URL:

"A clinical audit is “a process for monitoring standards of clinical care to see if it is being carried out in the best way possible (known as 'best practice'). Clinical audit can be described as a systematic 'cycle'. It involves measuring care against specific criteria, taking action to improve it if necessary, and monitoring the process to sustain improvement. As the process continues, an even higher level of quality is achieved."
(Source: Glossary [online] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence [cited 2018 October 3] Available from URL:

Case Report

"A detailed report of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports also contain some demographic information about the patient (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin)."

(Source: NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms [online] National Cancer Institute [cited 2018 October 3] Available from URL:

Case Series

“A group or series of case reports involving patients who were given similar treatment. Reports of case series usually contain detailed information about the individual patients. This includes demographic information (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin) and information on diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, and follow-up after treatment.”

(Source: NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms [online] National Cancer Institute [cited 2018 October 3] Available from URL:

Comments on a Published Article

This letter contains comments of an individual on any article published in JPMA within a maximum period of 3 months. It will be published along with the reply from the original author.

Letter to the Editor

A letter sent to the editor to address an area of concern or reporting early results of a new research.

Original Article

A manuscript will be considered in the original article category if it is a randomised controlled trial or a multi-centre study.

Randomised Controlled Trials: “A study in which a number of similar people are randomly assigned to 2 (or more) groups to test a specific drug, treatment or other intervention. One group (the experimental group) has the intervention being tested, the other (the comparison or control group) has an alternative intervention, a dummy intervention (placebo) or no intervention at all. The groups are followed up to see how effective the experimental intervention was. Outcomes are measured at specific times and any difference in response between the groups is assessed statistically. This method is also used to reduce bias.””

It is mandatory for a RCT to be registered prospectively and have a TRIAL NUMBER

  • Randomized Control trials(Trial Registration Number mandatory): It contains the studies in which groups are randomly allocated to carry out a clinical intervention.
  • Non- Randomized Trial: A study where participants have been assigned to the treatment, procedure or intervention alternatives by a method that is not random. The investigator defines and manages the alternatives. They are QUASI EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES. There is NO Control Group and NO Random assignment of participants.
  • Epidemiological studies: It contains the studies based on a particular population followed over a period of time. They can be either “incidence” in which the new cases are studied or the “prevalence” studies in which the existing cases are researched upon.
  • Descriptive observational studies: Cohort, Case control and cross sectional studies


REPORT: World or Country

KAP Studies

KAP measures and explores knowledge, attitude and practices of a community. It is a questionnaire based survey using the quantitative method to analyze the quantitative and qualitative information.

Pilot study

A pilot study is done to perform a small initial experiment is conducted to analyze and test the logistics and gather information prior to a larger study in order to improve the quality and efficiency of the larger study.


Innovation studies are the multidisciplinary researches in which different study areas are explored and the dynamics of emerging technologies and innovations are taken in consideration.

Meta analysis

Meta analysis is a statistical technique for summarizing and reviewing data from already conducted researches and to reach out on a conclusion from that.

Narrative Review

“Narrative reviews are aimed at identifying and summarizing what has been previously published, avoiding duplications, and seeking new study areas not yet addressed.”

Research reports/Research articles

Research report is a manuscript formulated by an analyst stating different aspects of a specific ailment. They are single centered studies done to determine new management/investigation/aspect of a disorder.

Exploratory research

Exploratory research conducted for a problem that has not been studied more clearly, intended to establish priorities, develop operational definitions and improve the final research design. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data-collection method and selection of subjects.Wikipedia

Short Communication

These are written communications in which a manuscript explains the study done on the small number of population with restricted outcome and setting.

Short Report

Similar to short communication. These are brief reports in which a manuscript explains the study done on the small number of population with restricted outcome and setting.

Special Communication

An article which states a new advancement in the field which showed promising results.

Systematic Reviews

“A systematic review summarises the results of available carefully designed healthcare studies (controlled trials) and provides a high level of evidence on the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Judgments may be made about the evidence and inform recommendations for healthcare.”

(Source: What is a systematic review? [online] Cochrane Consumer Network [cited 2018 October 3] Available from URL:

Editorials and contents of the imaging corner are usually invited manuscripts. Do not make a submission on OJS for these. If you are interested in writing one, kindly email at

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees: